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PHP A to ZCE: Error Handling

This article is part of the series “PHP A to Zend Certified Engineer”. In PHP A to ZCE, I will take you through 26 different yet equally important topics that will help you become a Zend Certified Engineer. Even if you're not interested in sitting the ZCE-PHP exam, these topics will elevate your understanding of PHP to a whole new level and allow you to become the guru in your company. Read more about PHP A to Zend Certified Engineer...

One of the features of PHP is its comprehensive error-handling functionality. You can control many aspects of how errors are triggered and handled. In this article I will cover the key aspects of errors and error handling in PHP.

Types of Errors

There are a number of different error types that may be triggered in PHP. Some of these can be recovered from, while others cannot (that is, some errors will cause the current script execution to immediately halt).

The following list is from the PHP manual entry on Error Predefined Constants.

  • E_ERROR: Fatal run-time errors. These indicate errors that can not be recovered from, such as a memory allocation problem. Execution of the script is halted
  • E_WARNING: Run-time warnings (non-fatal errors). Execution of the script is not halted
  • E_PARSE: Compile-time parse errors. Parse errors should only be generated by the parser.
  • E_NOTICE: Run-time notices. Indicate that the script encountered something that could indicate an error, but could also happen in the normal course of running a script.
  • E_CORE_ERROR: Fatal errors that occur during PHP's initial startup. This is like an E_ERROR, except it is generated by the core of PHP.
  • E_CORE_WARNING: Warnings (non-fatal errors) that occur during PHP's initial startup. This is like an E_WARNING, except it is generated by the core of PHP.
  • E_COMPILE_ERROR: Fatal compile-time errors. This is like an E_ERROR, except it is generated by the Zend Scripting Engine
  • E_COMPILE_WARNING: Compile-time warnings (non-fatal errors). This is like an E_WARNING, except it is generated by the Zend Scripting Engine
  • E_USER_ERROR: User-generated error message. This is like an E_ERROR, except it is generated in PHP code by using the PHP function trigger_error()
  • E_USER_WARNING: User-generated warning message. This is like an E_WARNING, except it is generated in PHP code by using the PHP function trigger_error()
  • E_USER_NOTICE: User-generated notice message. This is like an E_NOTICE, except it is generated in PHP code by using the PHP function trigger_error()
  • E_STRICT: Enable to have PHP suggest changes to your code which will ensure the best interoperability and forward compatibility of your code
  • E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR: Catchable fatal error. It indicates that a probably dangerous error occured, but did not leave the Engine in an unstable state. If the error is not caught by a user defined handle (see also set_error_handler()), the application aborts as it was an E_ERROR
  • E_DEPRECATED: Run-time notices. Enable this to receive warnings about code that will not work in future versions
  • E_USER_DEPRECATED: User-generated warning message. This is like an E_DEPRECATED, except it is generated in PHP code by using the PHP function trigger_error()

When you want to refer to all error levels easily (as I will show you later in the article), you can use E_ALL. This includes all errors and warnings, except for E_STRICT.

Which Errors Are Reported?

When one of the above errors occurs, whether or not it is reported is determined by the error_reporting setting.

  • You can set this either in php.ini
  • You can set it in your web server configuration (such as in httpd.conf or a .htaccess file)
  • You can set it at runtime (that is, from within your PHP script)

If you set it in your php.ini you can combine the above error constants into a bitwise mask. The following listing shows two examples that can be used in php.ini.

Listing 1 listing-1.txt
error_reporting = E_ALL & ~E_NOTICE ; all errors and not notices
error_reporting = E_WARNING | E_NOTICE ; warnings or notices

If you set the error level in httpd.conf or in .htaccess, these constant names do not exist. You must use their corresponding integer values instead.

The following shows a sample .htaccess file:

Listing 2 listing-2.txt
# this sets E_ALL & ~E_NOTICE - E_ALL is 30719 in PHP 5.3, 6143 in PHP 5.2
php_value error_reporting 30711

# this sets E_WARNING | E_NOTICE (2 | 8)
php_value error_reporting 10

To set at runtime you can use either ini_set() or error_reporting().

Listing 3 listing-3.php
<?php
    ini_set('error_reporting', E_ALL & ~E_NOTICE);
 
    error_reporting(E_WARNING | E_NOTICE);
?>

Another useful trick is to temporarily set a new error level, then revert back to the old one once you're done. This can be useful if you want to report on deprecated features normally, but a third-party library you're using would cause a bunch of warnings otherwise.

When you call error_reporting(), the current setting is returned. You can store this value temporarily.

Listing 4 listing-4.php
<?php
    // retrieve original reporting level then disable error reporting
    $oldLevel = error_reporting(0);
 
    // do something that might cause notices or warnings
 
    // all done: restore old level
    error_reporting($oldLevel);
?>

How Are Errors Reported?

There are essentially two ways that are errors are reported:

  1. To a log file
  2. To the screen (or end-user's browser)

It is recommended that displaying errors to the end-user is only ever used in development or for debugging. Production web sites should write errors to log files and display graceful messages to the end-user.

The display_errors configuration directive is a boolean value that controls whether or not errors are displayed.

In a httpd.conf or .htaccess file you can disable this with the following:

Listing 5 listing-5.txt
php_value display_errors Off

To log errors to the filesystem, enable the log_errors setting. By default this will write errors to the server's error log (in Apache, this would be the file specified with the ErrorLog directive).

You can use a different log file by setting the error_log directive. The following listing demonstrates what you would include in your Apache configuration to write error messages to a custom path.

Listing 6 listing-6.txt
php_value log_errors On
php_value error_log /path/to/site/logs/php-errors.log

Triggering Your Own Errors

It is possible to trigger PHP errors whenever you want to using the trigger_error() function. The first argument is a descriptive error message (limited to 1024 characters) and the second argument is the type of error (if unspecified the default is E_USER_NOTICE).

The typical scenario where you would trigger your own errors is when writing a custom PHP library that others can use. You can trigger errors in situations where the library isn't being correctly used (or where some other runtime issue occurred)

Note: You could use exceptions in PHP instead, or you could use a combination of custom error triggering and exceptions.

The following listing demonstrates how you might manually trigger an error in your code.

Listing 7 listing-7.php
<?php
    function myFunc($anInteger)
    {
        if (!is_int($anInteger)) {
            trigger_error(
                'First argument to myFunc() must be an integer',
                E_USER_NOTICE
            );
        }
 
        // do something
    }
 
    myFunc('A string');
?>

The @ Error Control Operator

PHP allows you to prefix expressions with the @, which sets error reporting to 0 just for that expression. While this should be used sparingly (your code should have appropriate error checks), it is useful in some situations.

For instance, when you use fopen() to open a file handle, if opening the file fails an error of level E_WARNING is triggered. Your code should always check whether or not the call worked anyway (it may be designed that it can fail in some instances).

In this instance, even if you expected the call to fail, you would have to suppress all warnings (including legitimate ones you want to know about) just to avoid the warning on fopen(). This is where @ can be useful. The following listing demonstrates this.

Listing 8 listing-8.php
<?php
    error_reporting(E_ALL);
 
    // suppress the warning if this fails since we check for failure
    $fp = @fopen('/path/to/some/file', 'r');
 
    if (!$fp) {
        // unable to open file
    }
?>

Using a Custom Error Handler

As previously mentioned, PHP will either write errors to output or a log file, or both. You can instead use a custom error handler, which bypasses both of these mechanisms completely.

Important: In fact, you must return true from the callback, otherwise the standard PHP error handler will be called afterwards.

This is achieved using the set_error_handler() function. This function accepts a PHP callback as its first argument. This callback accepts up to 5 arguments:

  1. $errno (integer) - The level of the error raised (e.g. E_WARNING)
  2. $errstr (string) - The error message describing the error
  3. $errfile (string, optional) - The filename the error was raised in
  4. $errline (integer, optional) - The line number in the file the error was raised
  5. $errcontext (array, optional) - An array that points to the active symbol table

The following code demonstrates a basic error handler. Since all error messages are passed to the handler despite the error reporting setting, it can be honored as shown in the first line of the errorHandler function.

Listing 9 listing-9.php
<?php
    function errorHandler($errno, $errstr, $errfile, $errline, $errcontext)
    {
        // use bitwise operators to check the error reporting setting
        if (error_reporting() & $errno == 0) {
            // we're not to report on this message
            return;
        }
 
        // check the type of error so it can be handled accordingly
        switch ($errno) {
            case E_USER_ERROR:
                echo sprintf(
                    'User Error: %s (file %s, line %d)',
                    $errstr,
                    $errfile,
                    $errline
                );
                break;
 
            case E_USER_WARNING:
                // output a message
                break;
 
            // handle other error numbers accordingly
        }
 
        // return true so standard error handler is bypassed
        return true;
    }
 
    // tell PHP to use the error handler
    set_error_handler('errorHandler');
 
    // trigger a fake error just to demonstrate the callback
    trigger_error('Fake error', E_USER_ERROR);
?>

If you want to script to finish execution when a certain error occurs, you must manually exit (by calling exit() or die()) from your error handler.

One final note: Not all types of errors can be dealt with using a custom error handler. From the PHP manual:

“The following error types cannot be handled with a user defined function: E_ERROR, E_PARSE, E_CORE_ERROR, E_CORE_WARNING, E_COMPILE_ERROR, E_COMPILE_WARNING, and most of E_STRICT raised in the file where set_error_handler() is called.”

Other Options

PHP A to ZCE: Error Handling