The behaviour of these functions is affected by settings in php.ini.
|session.gc_divisor||"100"||PHP_INI_ALL||Available since PHP 4.3.2.|
|session.cookie_secure||""||PHP_INI_ALL||Available since PHP 4.0.4.|
|session.cookie_httponly||""||PHP_INI_ALL||Available since PHP 5.2.0.|
|session.use_strict_mode||"0"||PHP_INI_ALL||Available since PHP 5.5.2.|
|session.use_only_cookies||"1"||PHP_INI_ALL||Available since PHP 4.3.0.|
|session.use_trans_sid||"0"||PHP_INI_ALL||PHP_INI_ALL in PHP <= 4.2.3. PHP_INI_PERDIR in PHP < 5. Available since PHP 4.0.3.|
|session.bug_compat_42||"1"||PHP_INI_ALL||Available since PHP 4.3.0. Removed in PHP 5.4.0.|
|session.bug_compat_warn||"1"||PHP_INI_ALL||Available since PHP 4.3.0. Removed in PHP 5.4.0.|
|session.hash_function||"0"||PHP_INI_ALL||Available since PHP 5.0.0.|
|session.hash_bits_per_character||"4"||PHP_INI_ALL||Available since PHP 5.0.0.|
|url_rewriter.tags||"a=href,area=href,frame=src,form=,fieldset="||PHP_INI_ALL||Available since PHP 4.0.4.|
|session.upload_progress.enabled||"1"||PHP_INI_PERDIR||Available since PHP 5.4.0.|
|session.upload_progress.cleanup||"1"||PHP_INI_PERDIR||Available since PHP 5.4.0.|
|session.upload_progress.prefix||"upload_progress_"||PHP_INI_PERDIR||Available since PHP 5.4.0.|
|session.upload_progress.name||"PHP_SESSION_UPLOAD_PROGRESS"||PHP_INI_PERDIR||Available since PHP 5.4.0.|
|session.upload_progress.freq||"1%"||PHP_INI_PERDIR||Available since PHP 5.4.0.|
|session.upload_progress.min_freq||"1"||PHP_INI_PERDIR||Available since PHP 5.4.0.|
The session management system supports a number of configuration options which you can place in your php.ini file. We will give a short overview.
- session.save_handler defines the name of the handler which is used for storing and retrieving data associated with a session. Defaults to files. Note that individual extensions may register their own save_handlers; registered handlers can be obtained on a per-installation basis by referring to phpinfo(). See also session_set_save_handler().
session.save_path defines the argument which
is passed to the save handler. If you choose the default files
handler, this is the path where the files are created. See also
There is an optional N argument to this directive that determines the number of directory levels your session files will be spread around in. For example, setting to '5;/tmp' may end up creating a session file and location like /tmp/4/b/1/e/3/sess_4b1e384ad74619bd212e236e52a5a174If . In order to use N you must create all of these directories before use. A small shell script exists in ext/session to do this, it's called mod_files.sh, with a Windows version called mod_files.bat. Also note that if N is used and greater than 0 then automatic garbage collection will not be performed, see a copy of php.ini for further information. Also, if you use N, be sure to surround session.save_path in "quotes" because the separator (;) is also used for comments in php.ini.
The file storage module creates files using mode 600 by default. This default can be changed with the optional MODE argument: N;MODE;/path where MODE is the octal representation of the mode. Setting MODE does not affect the process umask.Warning
If you leave this set to a world-readable directory, such as /tmp (the default), other users on the server may be able to hijack sessions by getting the list of files in that directory.
Note: Prior to PHP 4.3.6, Windows users had to change this variable in order to use PHP's session functions. A valid path must be specified, e.g.: c:/temp.
- session.name specifies the name of the session which is used as cookie name. It should only contain alphanumeric characters. Defaults to PHPSESSID. See also session_name().
- session.auto_start specifies whether the session module starts a session automatically on request startup. Defaults to 0 (disabled).
- session.serialize_handler defines the name of the handler which is used to serialize/deserialize data. PHP serialize format (name php_serialize, PHP internal formats (name php and php_binary) and WDDX are supported (name wddx). WDDX is only available, if PHP is compiled with WDDX support. php_serialize is available from PHP 5.5.4. php_serialize uses plain serialize/unserialize function internally and does not have limitations that php and php_binary have. Older serialize handlers cannot store numeric index nor string index contains special characters (| and !) in $_SESSION. Use php_serialize to avoid numeric index or special character errors at script shutdown. Defaults to php.
- session.gc_probability in conjunction with session.gc_divisor is used to manage probability that the gc (garbage collection) routine is started. Defaults to 1. See session.gc_divisor for details.
- session.gc_divisor coupled with session.gc_probability defines the probability that the gc (garbage collection) process is started on every session initialization. The probability is calculated by using gc_probability/gc_divisor, e.g. 1/100 means there is a 1% chance that the GC process starts on each request. session.gc_divisor defaults to 100.
session.gc_maxlifetime specifies the number
of seconds after which data will be seen as 'garbage' and
potentially cleaned up. Garbage collection may occur during session start
(depending on session.gc_probability and
If different scripts have different values of session.gc_maxlifetime but share the same place for storing the session data then the script with the minimum value will be cleaning the data. In this case, use this directive together with session.save_path.
Note: If you are using the default file-based session handler, your filesystem must keep track of access times (atime). Windows FAT does not so you will have to come up with another way to handle garbage collecting your session if you are stuck with a FAT filesystem or any other filesystem where atime tracking is not available. Since PHP 4.2.3 it has used mtime (modified date) instead of atime. So, you won't have problems with filesystems where atime tracking is not available.
- session.referer_check contains the substring you want to check each HTTP Referer for. If the Referer was sent by the client and the substring was not found, the embedded session id will be marked as invalid. Defaults to the empty string.
session.entropy_file gives a path to an
external resource (file) which will be used as an additional
entropy source in the session id creation process. Examples are
/dev/random or /dev/urandom
which are available on many Unix systems.
This feature is supported on Windows since PHP 5.3.3. Setting
session.entropy_length to a non zero value
will make PHP use the Windows Random API as entropy source.
Note: As of PHP 5.4.0 session.entropy_file defaults to /dev/urandom or /dev/arandom if it is available. In PHP 5.3.0 this directive is left empty by default.
- session.entropy_length specifies the number of bytes which will be read from the file specified above. Defaults to 0 (disabled).
- session.use_strict_mode specifies whether the module will use strict session id mode. If this mode is enabled, the module does not accept uninitialized session ID. If uninitialized session ID is sent from browser, new session ID is sent to browser. Applications are protected from session fixation via session adoption with strict mode. Defaults to 0 (disabled).
session.cookie_lifetime specifies the lifetime of
the cookie in seconds which is sent to the browser. The value 0
means "until the browser is closed." Defaults to
0. See also
The expiration timestamp is set relative to the server time, which is not necessarily the same as the time in the client's browser.
- session.cookie_path specifies path to set in the session cookie. Defaults to /. See also session_get_cookie_params() and session_set_cookie_params().
- session.cookie_domain specifies the domain to set in the session cookie. Default is none at all meaning the host name of the server which generated the cookie according to cookies specification. See also session_get_cookie_params() and session_set_cookie_params().
- session.cookie_secure specifies whether cookies should only be sent over secure connections. Defaults to off. This setting was added in PHP 4.0.4. See also session_get_cookie_params() and session_set_cookie_params().
- session.cache_limiter specifies the cache control method used for session pages. It may be one of the following values: nocache, private, private_no_expire, or public. Defaults to nocache. See also the session_cache_limiter() documentation for information about what these values mean.
- session.cache_expire specifies time-to-live for cached session pages in minutes, this has no effect for nocache limiter. Defaults to 180. See also session_cache_expire().
session.use_trans_sid whether transparent
sid support is enabled or not. Defaults to
Note: For PHP 4.1.2 or less, it is enabled by compiling with --enable-trans-sid. From PHP 4.2.0, trans-sid feature is always compiled. URL based session management has additional security risks compared to cookie based session management. Users may send a URL that contains an active session ID to their friends by email or users may save a URL that contains a session ID to their bookmarks and access your site with the same session ID always, for example.
- PHP versions 4.2.3 and lower have an undocumented feature/bug that allows you to initialize a session variable in the global scope, albeit register_globals is disabled. PHP 4.3.0 and later will warn you, if this feature is used, and if session.bug_compat_warn is also enabled. This feature/bug can be disabled by disabling this directive.
- PHP versions 4.2.3 and lower have an undocumented feature/bug that allows you to initialize a session variable in the global scope, albeit register_globals is disabled. PHP 4.3.0 and later will warn you, if this feature is used by enabling both session.bug_compat_42 and session.bug_compat_warn.
session.hash_function allows you to specify the hash
algorithm used to generate the session IDs. '0' means MD5 (128 bits) and
'1' means SHA-1 (160 bits).
Since PHP 5.3.0 it is also possible to specify any of the algorithms provided by the hash extension (if it is available), like sha512 or whirlpool. A complete list of supported algorithms can be obtained with the hash_algos() function.
This setting was introduced in PHP 5.
session.hash_bits_per_character allows you to define
how many bits are stored in each character when converting the binary
hash data to something readable. The possible values are '4' (0-9, a-f),
'5' (0-9, a-v), and '6' (0-9, a-z, A-Z, "-", ",").
This was introduced in PHP 5.
url_rewriter.tags specifies which HTML tags
are rewritten to include session id if transparent sid support
is enabled. Defaults to
Note: If you want HTML/XHTML strict conformity, remove the form entry and use the <fieldset> tags around your form fields.
- Enables upload progress tracking, populating the $_SESSION variable. Defaults to 1, enabled.
Cleanup the progress information as soon as all POST data has been read
(i.e. upload completed). Defaults to 1, enabled.
Note: It is highly recommended to keep this feature enabled.
- A prefix used for the upload progress key in the $_SESSION. This key will be concatenated with the value of $_POST[ini_get("session.upload_progress.name")] to provide a unique index. Defaults to "upload_progress_".
- The name of the key to be used in $_SESSION storing the progress information. See also session.upload_progress.prefix. If $_POST[ini_get("session.upload_progress.name")] is not passed or available, upload progressing will not be recorded. Defaults to "PHP_SESSION_UPLOAD_PROGRESS".
- Defines how often the upload progress information should be updated. This can be defined in bytes (i.e. "update progress information after every 100 bytes"), or in percentages (i.e. "update progress information after receiving every 1% of the whole filesize"). Defaults to "1%".
- The minimum delay between updates, in seconds. Defaults to "1" (one second).
Upload progress will not be registered unless session.upload_progress.enabled is enabled, and the $_POST[ini_get("session.upload_progress.name")] variable is set. See Session Upload Progress for mor details on this functionality.
As of PHP 4.0.3, track_vars is always turned on.