Become Zend Certified

Prepare for the ZCE exam using our quizzes (web or iPad/iPhone). More info...

When you're ready get 7.5% off your exam voucher using voucher CJQNOV23 at the Zend Store

Cascading Write Operations

Declare DRI in the database:

Declaring cascading operations in Zend_Db_Table is intended only for RDBMS brands that do not support declarative referential integrity (DRI).

For example, if you use MySQL's or MariaDB's MyISAM storage engine, or SQLite, these solutions do not support DRI. You may find it helpful to declare the cascading operations with Zend_Db_Table.

If your RDBMS implements DRI and the ON DELETE and ON UPDATE clauses, you should declare these clauses in your database schema, instead of using the cascading feature in Zend_Db_Table. Declaring cascading DRI rules in the RDBMS is better for database performance, consistency, and integrity.

Most importantly, do not declare cascading operations both in the RDBMS and in your Zend_Db_Table class.

You can declare cascading operations to execute against a dependent table when you apply an UPDATE or a DELETE to a row in a parent table.

Example 340. Example of a Cascading Delete

This example shows deleting a row in the Products table, which is configured to automatically delete dependent rows in the Bugs table.

= new Products();
$productsRowset $productsTable->find(1234);
$product1234 $productsRowset->current();

// Automatically cascades to Bugs table
// and deletes dependent rows.

Similarly, if you use UPDATE to change the value of a primary key in a parent table, you may want the value in foreign keys of dependent tables to be updated automatically to match the new value, so that such references are kept up to date.

It's usually not necessary to update the value of a primary key that was generated by a sequence or other mechanism. But if you use a natural key that may change value occasionally, it is more likely that you need to apply cascading updates to dependent tables.

To declare a cascading relationship in the Zend_Db_Table, edit the rules in the $_referenceMap. Set the associative array keys 'onDelete' and 'onUpdate' to one of these options:

  • Cascade: This option configures a single-level cascade (parent table plus all directly-dependent tables). To enable this option set the appropriate key in $_referenceMap to string 'cascade' or use the constant self::CASCADE.

  • Recursive Cascade: This option configures a full recursive cascade starting with the parent table. To enable this option set the appropriate key in $_referenceMap to string 'cascadeRecurse' or use the constant self::CASCADE_RECURSE.

Before a row is deleted from the parent table, or its primary key values updated, any rows in the dependent table that refer to the parent's row are deleted or updated first.

Example 341. Example Declaration of Cascading Operations

In the example below, rows in the Bugs table are automatically deleted if the row in the Products table to which they refer is deleted. The 'onDelete' element of the reference map entry is set to self::CASCADE.

No cascading update is done in the example below if the primary key value in the parent class is changed. The 'onUpdate' element of the reference map entry is self::RESTRICT. You can get the same result by omitting the 'onUpdate' entry.

class BugsProducts extends Zend_Db_Table_Abstract
$_referenceMap = array(
'Product' => array(
'columns'           => array('product_id'),
'refTableClass'     => 'Products',
'refColumns'        => array('product_id'),
'onDelete'          => self::CASCADE,
'onUpdate'          => self::RESTRICT

Notes Regarding Cascading Operations

Cascading operations invoked by Zend_Db_Table are not atomic.

This means that if your database implements and enforces referential integrity constraints, a cascading UPDATE executed by a Zend_Db_Table class conflicts with the constraint, and results in a referential integrity violation. You can use cascading UPDATE in Zend_Db_Table only if your database does not enforce that referential integrity constraint.

Cascading DELETE suffers less from the problem of referential integrity violations. You can delete dependent rows as a non-atomic action before deleting the parent row that they reference.

However, for both UPDATE and DELETE, changing the database in a non-atomic way also creates the risk that another database user can see the data in an inconsistent state. For example, if you delete a row and all its dependent rows, there is a small chance that another database client program can query the database after you have deleted the dependent rows, but before you delete the parent row. That client program may see the parent row with no dependent rows, and assume this is the intended state of the data. There is no way for that client to know that its query read the database in the middle of a change.

The issue of non-atomic change can be mitigated by using transactions to isolate your change. But some RDBMS brands don't support transactions, or allow clients to read "dirty" changes that have not been committed yet.

Cascading operations in Zend_Db_Table are invoked only by Zend_Db_Table.

Cascading deletes and updates defined in your Zend_Db_Table classes are applied if you execute the save() or delete() methods on the Row class. However, if you update or delete data using another interface, such as a query tool or another application, the cascading operations are not applied. Even when using update() and delete() methods in the Zend_Db_Adapter class, cascading operations defined in your Zend_Db_Table classes are not executed.

No Cascading INSERT.

There is no support for a cascading INSERT. You must insert a row to a parent table in one operation, and insert rows to a dependent table in a separate operation.

Zend Framework