Remote Debugging PHP with a Firewall in the Way
The PHP debugging extension Xdebug has "remote" debugging capabilities for single-step debugging PHP applications. This works by setting your favourite IDE into listening mode and instructing Xdebug (with one of the handy browser extensions for example) to initiate debugging. When Xdebug is instructed it tries to make a connection to the IP address and port number that are configured in php.ini. On this IP address and port Xdebug expects to find a listening IDE. This IP address can just be 127.0.0.1 in case your IDE and web server/CLI script run on the same machine. But as Xdebug supports remote debugging, PHP/Xdebug could also be running on a totally different machine than your IDE. In that case, you need to pick the IP address of the machine on which the IDE is running as the configuration value for xdebug.remote_host. Alternatively you can set xdebug.remote_connect_back to true, so that Xdebug may simply pick up your client machine's IP address from the HTTP headers.
There could however be a firewall in the way that prevents Xdebug connecting directly to your IDE's IP address. That can be because the network you are on employs NAT in which case you could try (to convince) to get your system administrator to install a DBGp proxy. In some cases, he might not be willing to do so, or perhaps, there is simply a black box that doesn't allow either a proxy to be run on it, or port forwarding to be set-up on. In this case, there is no way Xdebug can connect to your IDE's IP address and port. Or is there?
Breaking the Firewall Down
There is another solution, at least, if you have SSH access to the development machine where Xdebug is running on. In this case, you can simply ssh in and set-up a tunnel:ssh -R 9000:localhost:9000 firstname.lastname@example.org
This command opens up port 9000, configured with the first 9000 in the command, for listening on the machine where you ssh-ed into. Every connection that is made to this port is then forwarded to localhost:9000, which in this case is port 9000 on the machine from where you ran the ssh command from. When you set Xdebug's xdebug.remote_host setting to localhost and xdebug.remote_port to 9000 you know have instructed Xdebug to connect to your SSH-tunneled connection which is forwarded to your local port 9000. And that is exactly where your IDE is listening for incoming debugging connections. Result: Firewall circumvented.
If you are so unfortunate to be using Windows on the client side then you don't have the luxury of being able to use the simple SSH client. However, you can set-up tunnels with putty as well. After configuring your normal session, go to the Connection, SSH, Tunnels section of the configuration and fill in Source port and Destination, and select Remote, just like in this screen shot:
Then click the Add button and you will see the following on your screen:
Don't forget to go back to the Session tab and press save. You're now ready to login and when you do so an SSH tunnel will be created just like in the Unix case above.
You can check whether it worked by running: netstat -a -n | grep 9000 on the SSH prompt after logging in. You should then see:derick@xdebug:~$ netstat -a -n | grep 9000 tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:9000 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN tcp6 0 0 :::9000 :::* LISTEN
The tcp6 portion might not be there, but that's all right. There, even with Windows: Firewall circumvented.